El ave Gamayun en la mitología rusa.


En muchos dialectos rusos antiguos se puede encontrar la palabra "gamayun", que significa “persona muy habladora”. Quizás por eso el ave Gamayun se llama así, porque le gusta mucho tener largas conversaciones.

El ave Gamayun se mencionó por primera vez en la mitología eslava en el siglo XV. Al principio, la describieron como un ave del paraíso sin alas ni patas, que volaba con la ayuda de la cola, que nunca tocaba el suelo y, por eso, cuando necesitaba descansar, se enganchaba con las plumas a las ramas de los árboles.

Más tarde, las descripciones de Gamayun fueron cambiando, y comenzaron a presentarla como una criatura con la cabeza y el pecho de una hermosa doncella, y con el cuerpo de un ave. Se contaban extrañas historias, en las que se decía que esta maravillosa criatura podría convertirse en una bella joven con el cabello de un colorido increíble y una voz mágica. A partir de ahí se fue formando la imagen del ave Gamayun en la mitología eslava, que rápidamente se hizo popular.

El ave Gamayun era la encarnación de la sabiduría de Veles, el dios de la suerte y la fertilidad. ¡Ella lo sabía todo! Sabía todo sobre el cielo y la tierra, las estrellas y las noches, y también muchas otras cosas que estaban fuera del alcance de cualquier persona corriente. Ella era la única que podía cantar el libro de oro de los Vedas, y lo hacía con una voz tan dulce que esa canción llegó a ser la más hermosa que cantara nunca el ave Gamayun!

También era capaz de enseñarles al hombre los himnos divinos, para que los dioses escucharan las peticiones de los mortales. Se creía que si esa maravillosa criatura alguna vez, volando bajo y tocaba con sus alas la cabeza de algún ser humano, la suerte lo acompañaría siempre. Además de poder conceder los dones de la fortuna y la protección, Gamayun podía predecir el futuro. Y si alguien lograba obtener una pluma suya, conseguiría fama y buena suerte.

Por eso, muchas personas se preguntaban dónde encontrar al ave Gamayun y cómo llamarla. Mucha gente soñaba con reunirse con ella. Sin embargo, en circunstancias normales, esto hubiera sido imposible, y así fue, hasta que la mala fortuna quiso que se pronunciaran ciertos maleficios especiales para conseguirlo, como este: “Llega, Gamayun, ave profética, a través del mar, a través de las montañas altas, a través de un bosque oscuro, a través de un campo puro. Canta, Gamayun, ave profética, en el amanecer blanco, en una montaña escarpada, en un pequeño arbusto, en una ramita de frambuesa".

Otro maleficio consistía en pronunciar estas palabras: "Oh, ave profética, oh, ave sabia, que todo lo sabes, que todo lo conoces, cuéntame. Canta Gamayun, y dime: ¿Por qué comenzó toda la Luz Blanca? ¿El sol rojo de dónde vino? El mes brillante y la multitud de estrellas, ¿por qué nacieron? Y ¿cómo soplaron los vientos salvajes? Y ¿cómo ardieron los amaneceres claros?”

Sin embargo, nada garantizaba que apareciera aquella maravillosa criatura; ni siquiera pronunciar incansablemente éstos y otros maleficios. El ave del paraíso venía solo a quienes se conocía como personas bondadosas y honradas.

De hecho, la imagen de esta ave personifica a ciertos mediadores divinos entre el mundo de las personas y las criaturas de un orden superior. Gamayun siempre es un personaje positivo. Y si recordamos el hecho de que en los antiguos mitos sin la participación del ave Gamayun, no se lograba ninguna hazaña significativa, queda claro que la unidad de los miembros de linaje, vivos y difuntos, es la única base posible para la realización de las buenas intenciones. Y así es como nuestros antepasados eslavos veían y entendían el mundo.
15 de enero de 2019
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$16.00
USD/h

Anna Sharapova

5.0
$16.00
USD/h
Flag
Ruso
globe
Rusia
time
89
Habla:
Ruso
Nativo
,
Inglés
B2
,
Español
B2
,
Árabe
A2
Hello, my name is Anna, but you can call me Anya. I am a professional teacher of Russian as a foreign language. I have been teaching for about 8 years, and I’ve also been a keen student of other languages: Spanish, English and recently I took up Arabic. So, every day I personally experience the difficulties that beginners encounter, especially if the target language bears little resemblance to their native language. After just a few lessons, you will be able to start speaking with me at a basic level, but you need to remember that slow and steady wins the race, and your desire and motivation makes for 50% of success. The remaining 50% is my task, and very soon you will be communicating with your Russian acquaintances, friends, girlfriend or boyfriend in Russian, without the help of an interpreter. During the lessons, we usually work at developing all the language skills: we read, write, listen, and—what is most important—speak a lot. I use the most advanced technology to deliver the content, so there won't be any unwanted stops during my lessons because of the opening and delivery of supporting materials; I value your time, and we’ll be using it to maximum effect. I use a high quality microphone, so you won’t have to strain trying to hear me speaking. I also understand that it’s not all about fancy equipment; but about clear and intelligible speech. Good diction and articulation are an integral part of my lessons. Although I use the framework of a tried-and-tested and effective programme, I customise each lesson to the individual needs of the students. Together, we will overcome all your fears and concerns about your supposedly imperfect pronunciation, and break the myths and stereotypes about studying Russian which disrupt the studies of so many students. I know how to present complex things in a simple and accessible way and how to make boring things interesting. That is why, at the lessons, we’ll be using examples related to Russian culture, and thereby also broadening your horizons—killing two birds with one stone, so to speak; or we’ll be taking specific examples related to your current needs-- those which prompted you to study Russian. It’s up to you to decide. I know that it’s often difficult for students to switch over during the first minutes of a lesson, so I use a cosy and quiet atmosphere on the screen as a tool for a quick and complete immersion into the learning process. A degree in psychology and expertise in teaching offline have allowed me to learn how to feel the emotional state of a student and encourage you to start speaking from the first lessons, make your first mistakes and learn from them with my help. I feel my mission accomplished if the student leaves the lesson with a wealth of new knowledge, in high spirits, and with a desire to soar to new language heights. I am open to new people, and I’ll be happy to help you make the process of learning Russian as seamless as possible. Thank you for your time, and I look forward to seeing you at the lesson.
Flag
Ruso
globe
Rusia
time
89
Habla:
Ruso
Nativo
,
Inglés
B2
,
Español
B2
,
Árabe
A2
Hello, my name is Anna, but you can call me Anya. I am a professional teacher of Russian as a foreign language. I have been teaching for about 8 years, and I’ve also been a keen student of other languages: Spanish, English and recently I took up Arabic. So, every day I personally experience the difficulties that beginners encounter, especially if the target language bears little resemblance to their native language. After just a few lessons, you will be able to start speaking with me at a basic level, but you need to remember that slow and steady wins the race, and your desire and motivation makes for 50% of success. The remaining 50% is my task, and very soon you will be communicating with your Russian acquaintances, friends, girlfriend or boyfriend in Russian, without the help of an interpreter. During the lessons, we usually work at developing all the language skills: we read, write, listen, and—what is most important—speak a lot. I use the most advanced technology to deliver the content, so there won't be any unwanted stops during my lessons because of the opening and delivery of supporting materials; I value your time, and we’ll be using it to maximum effect. I use a high quality microphone, so you won’t have to strain trying to hear me speaking. I also understand that it’s not all about fancy equipment; but about clear and intelligible speech. Good diction and articulation are an integral part of my lessons. Although I use the framework of a tried-and-tested and effective programme, I customise each lesson to the individual needs of the students. Together, we will overcome all your fears and concerns about your supposedly imperfect pronunciation, and break the myths and stereotypes about studying Russian which disrupt the studies of so many students. I know how to present complex things in a simple and accessible way and how to make boring things interesting. That is why, at the lessons, we’ll be using examples related to Russian culture, and thereby also broadening your horizons—killing two birds with one stone, so to speak; or we’ll be taking specific examples related to your current needs-- those which prompted you to study Russian. It’s up to you to decide. I know that it’s often difficult for students to switch over during the first minutes of a lesson, so I use a cosy and quiet atmosphere on the screen as a tool for a quick and complete immersion into the learning process. A degree in psychology and expertise in teaching offline have allowed me to learn how to feel the emotional state of a student and encourage you to start speaking from the first lessons, make your first mistakes and learn from them with my help. I feel my mission accomplished if the student leaves the lesson with a wealth of new knowledge, in high spirits, and with a desire to soar to new language heights. I am open to new people, and I’ll be happy to help you make the process of learning Russian as seamless as possible. Thank you for your time, and I look forward to seeing you at the lesson.
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