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How To Pronounce the - Ed ending correctly in English

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How to Pronounce the -ed ending correctly in English
The final -ed ending has three different pronunciations: /id//t/, and /d/

Final -ED is Pronounced /id/

Final -ed is pronounced /id/ after verbs ending in /t/ or /d/ sounds, examples:
  • add – added
  • lift – lifted
  • end -ended
  • rest – rested
  • defend – defended
  • wait – waited
  • pretend – pretended
  • want – wanted

Final -ED is Pronounced /t/

Final -ed is pronounced /t/ after verbs ending in voiceless sounds except /t/, examples:
  • /p/ – dropped, shaped, sipped, wrapped, hoped
  • /k/ – dropped, locked, marked, wrecked, liked
  • /f/ – coughed, laughed, photographed, puffed
  • /θ/ – bathed, toothed
  • /s/ – danced, placed, kissed, missed, faxed
  • /∫/ – brushed, flashed, rushed, wished, washed
  • /t∫/ – pinched, reached, touched, watched

Final -ED is Pronounced /d/

Final -ed is pronounced /d/ after verbs ending in voiced sounds except /d/. Voiced sounds include vowel sounds:
  • /i: / – keyed, guaranteed
  • /I/ – pitied, envied, worried, carried
  • /ɑ:/ – barred, scarred
  • /ɜ:/ – preferred, referred,
  • /ə/ –  answered, bothered, gathered
  • /eI/ – stayed, delayed, played, weighed
  • /b/ – disturbed, robbed, grabbed
  • /g/ – begged, dragged
  • /m/ – aimed, seemed
  • /ð/ – clothed, bathed, mouthed
  • /z/ – dazed, pleased, caused
  • /l/ – called, killed, rolled, boiled, mailed




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